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#305221 - 30th Mar 2009 2:29pm Air Raid Protection
bert1 Offline

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Registered: 27th Nov 2008
Posts: 7864
Loc: tranmere
In November 1938, Chamberlain placed Sir John Anderson in charge of Air Raid Precautions (ARP). He immediately commissioned the engineer, William Patterson, to design a small and cheap shelter that could be erected in people's gardens. Within a few months, around two million of what became known as Anderson Shelters were distributed to people living in areas expected to be bombed by the Luftwaffe. Made from six curved sheets bolted together at the top, with steel plates at either end, and measuring 1.95m by 1.35m, the shelter could accommodate six people. These shelters were half buried in the ground with earth heaped on top.


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Anderson unburied.jpg


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#305223 - 30th Mar 2009 2:37pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: bert1]
bert1 Offline

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Registered: 27th Nov 2008
Posts: 7864
Loc: tranmere
The Morrison shelter was approximately 6 feet 6 inches (2m) long, 4 feet (1.2m) wide and 2 feet 6 inches (0.75m) high. When not in use as a shelter it could be used as a table (see illustration) by temporarily removing the welded wire mesh sides.
Whilst the Anderson was constructed of 14 corrugated sheets, and required some digging to let it into the ground, the Morrison consisted of some 219 parts (not including 48 nuts and bolts) and came with 3 tools with which to assemble it.
These shelters were distributed free to most people and over 500 000 had been distributed by November 1941.
The Morrison was extremely effective, if assembled correctly, and undoubtedly saved many lives.


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#305227 - 30th Mar 2009 2:46pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: bert1]
Doctor_Frick Offline
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Registered: 24th Nov 2007
Posts: 308
Loc: Prenton
I would not like to rely on that to stop shrapnel !
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#305229 - 30th Mar 2009 2:50pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: bert1]
bert1 Offline

Wiki Veteran

Registered: 27th Nov 2008
Posts: 7864
Loc: tranmere
Terroconcrete, Stent,Reinforced, Public Shelters


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R2.jpg

R3.jpg

R4.jpg


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#305230 - 30th Mar 2009 4:09pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: bert1]
bert1 Offline

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Registered: 27th Nov 2008
Posts: 7864
Loc: tranmere
A lot of people during air raids decided to seek protection in their own basement or cellar or even under a sturdy table or under the stairs rather than go out into the cold and often water filled shelters. Shelters were free to anyone earning less than 250 a year and a charge of 7 was made to higher earners. Though the Anderson and Morrison were useless against direct hits they offered excellent protection against compression and debris falling.


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hshf_img_unloadingandersons.gif

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#305236 - 30th Mar 2009 4:48pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: bert1]
diggingdeeper Offline

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Registered: 9th Jul 2008
Posts: 9893
Loc: Birkenhead
Really good study there bert - thankyou!
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#305242 - 30th Mar 2009 5:59pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: diggingdeeper]
_Ste_ Offline


Wiki Master

Registered: 7th Aug 2005
Posts: 15988
Loc: New Brighton
scary stuff, pity todays chavs don`t apprieciate this, its all plastic knives and spud guns these days thinking their `hard`.

grow up in these war times you little fags and see how hard you are then!

crackin post burt happy
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#305247 - 30th Mar 2009 6:42pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: _Ste_]
Jamie_LFC Offline
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Registered: 4th Mar 2009
Posts: 322
Loc: Birkenhead
So true Ste So true.
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#305250 - 30th Mar 2009 6:53pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: Jamie_LFC]
bert1 Offline

Wiki Veteran

Registered: 27th Nov 2008
Posts: 7864
Loc: tranmere
The pre-war policy of the Government was to disperse the population in an air raid rather than build large public shelters which might become mass tombs. Many of these public shelters were squat brick and concrete surface built shelters, designed to hold 50. They were dank and dark and had no sanitary facilities. Their poor construction also made them dangerous and deadly places. A nearby bomb burst could lift the roof, usually a concrete slab, which would come crashing down on the occupants. These defects were later overcome by the building of outer blast walls, improving the mortaring of the cement joints and by edging the roof so that it could shift a few inches without falling off the supporting walls A smaller version of these shelters were often erected in property's that had yards rather than gardens, a simple brick construction with a concrete slab for a roof. some of these are still in use now as sheds and coal bunkers.


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#305258 - 30th Mar 2009 7:40pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: bert1]
Snodvan Offline

Forum Addict

Registered: 19th Mar 2008
Posts: 1257
Loc: Wallasey Village
When I acquired an allotment in the late 1960s (I was a bit younger then) I remember "finding" a buried Anderson shelter when I was digging foundations for a greenhouse. It seemed to take for ever to dig out bits of rusting metal sheet etc but it had to be done because I did not fancy having a potential "hole" below the greenhouse.

I gave up the allotment about 4 years ago

Snod
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#305261 - 30th Mar 2009 8:16pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: Snodvan]
Jamie_LFC Offline
Old Hand

Registered: 4th Mar 2009
Posts: 322
Loc: Birkenhead
If you google "Anderson Shelter On Alotments" Youll find some interesting stuff
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#305288 - 30th Mar 2009 9:42pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: Jamie_LFC]
bert1 Offline

Wiki Veteran

Registered: 27th Nov 2008
Posts: 7864
Loc: tranmere
Does anyone have memories of using the Queensway tunnel as a air raid shelter. I remember my Mother telling me the people in her area use to use the tunnel on occasions and i would think seeing as she lived in Wood St it would have been the Dock entrance in Rendall St. I know the underground was also used and apparently a lot of people felt safer under arched brick bridges rather than the public shelter.
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Come yourself,
Don't send Jesus,
This is no place for children.


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#305290 - 30th Mar 2009 9:46pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: bert1]
Jamie_LFC Offline
Old Hand

Registered: 4th Mar 2009
Posts: 322
Loc: Birkenhead
I dont have memorys as I wasn't alive during the war's. But I spoke to the old folk but they werent alive then neither, I should have known. But my mum told stories that my nan told her and yeah they remember that they were told to shelter there if that was the nearest place they could shelter.
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#305294 - 30th Mar 2009 9:52pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: Jamie_LFC]
jimbob Online   content

Forum Addict

Registered: 26th Nov 2008
Posts: 1544
Loc: Birkenhead
If your house had a back garden you got an anderson shelter, which applyed to most of the semi detached council houses arround Birkenhead. if you lived in a terraced house that had room in the back yard you got one of the brck built shelters, if the terraced house only had a tiny back yard so there was no room for a brck shelter, the larger brick shelters where built in the street, as the one bert1 shows in his photo's. most of the strrets in lower Tranmere had these shelters in them..the bunk beds where wooden frames with thin metal straps accross them. If you where lucky some on had a candle that they lit so you where not in the dark.
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#305305 - 30th Mar 2009 10:20pm Re: Air Raid Protection [Re: jimbob]
Riki_Wirral Offline
Addict

Registered: 10th Oct 2008
Posts: 215
Loc: Claughton
This is a fantastic thread. So much info out there! I wonder if other countries had similar shelters during the war.
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